Cooling emissions will likely increase by nearly 40% by 2030.
With cooling emissions expected to increase by almost 40% in 2030, WWF-Singapore (World Wide for Nature Singapore) has urged Lion City to adopt four clean cooling solutions.
The first of the four is district cooling for network flexibility.
According to the WWF, District Cooling “minimizes energy consumption by having cooling plants deliver chilled water to buildings through an underground network of insulated pipes, eliminating the need for buildings to install their chillers”.
“District cooling systems offer high potential for flexibility through their ability to store cold energy in thermal energy storage systems,” the organization added.
Another solution would be to integrate control systems or use smart thermostats integrated with building management systems.
WWF said buildings could also install phase change materials (PCM) which can provide short to medium term storage capacity.
“PCMs absorb large amounts of heat as they change from solid to liquid, and the stored heat is released when the PCM solidifies again. The use of PCM in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems ) can store low-carbon energy and deliver it during peak hours, providing flexibility through demand response,” WWF said.
For longer-lasting energy storage, WWF said buildings could use cryogenic energy storage systems capable of storing “excess renewable electricity at peak times and returning it to the grid when needed”. case of high demand or low production of renewable electricity”.
“Cryogenic energy storage systems are a form of PCM technology that releases energy when specific chemicals are manipulated to change from liquid to gas phase, allowing storage or reuse of cold energy wasted on other needs,” WWF said.
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These four solutions, according to WWF, can help Singapore not only meet its growing demand for cooling but also limit its GHG emissions.
Singapore’s cooling demand — primarily from commercial buildings, households, industries and data centers — is expected to increase by 66% by 2023 if it does not implement cooling interventions.
“As countries begin their transition to Net Zero by scaling up renewables, new challenges related to grid variability and flexibility must be addressed to achieve decarbonization. As a major contributor to energy demand, cooling is well placed to be exploited as an energy carrier and flexibility provider,” commented Chris Stephens, Asia Director of the Carbon Trust.